Seco M, Edelman JJ, Wilson MK, Bannon PG, Vallely MP
Ann. Thorac. Surg. 2012 Sep;94(3):1026-33
Assessment of subtle neurocognitive decline after surgical procedures has been hampered by heterogeneous testing techniques and a lack of reproducibility. This review summarizes the sensitivity and specificity of biomarkers of neurologic injury to determine whether they can be applied in the postoperative period to accurately predict neurocognitive decline. Creatine kinase-brain type, neuron-specific enolase, and S100B can be released into serum during operations by extracranial sources. Glial fibrillary acidic protein is a sensitive marker, and there are extracranial sources that are antigenically different from the brain-derived form. Serum levels of tau protein after acute neurologic injury do not reliability correlate with incidence.